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Dogs

  • The word anesthesia comes from the Greek meaning "lack of sensation". Anesthesia is accomplished by administering drugs that depress nerve function. With general anesthesia, the patient is made unconscious for a short period. During this unconscious state, there is muscular relaxation and a complete loss of pain sensation.

  • The pupil is a round opening in the middle of the iris that allows light to pass through the eye to the retina. The pupil constricts or dilates (enlarges) according to the amount of light that enters the eyes, with both pupils normally dilating in dim light and constricting in bright light.

  • Anorexia is a decrease or loss of appetite for food. While hunger is a physically driven, appetite is mentally driven. There are two types of anorexia: true anorexia and “pseudo-anorexia.” Both result in decreased food intake, but a dog with pseudo-anorexia wants to eat (is hungry) but can’t because of difficulty picking up, chewing, or swallowing food or some other cause.

  • Antacids are used to neutralize excess acid (decrease the amount of acid) in the stomach. Antacids can be used for inflammation of the esophagus, excessive acid in the stomach, peptic ulcer and inflammation of the stomach. In patients with kidney failure, antacids may be used to decrease the amount of phosphate in the blood.

  • Unfortunately, anthrax has been threatened as a method of bio-terrorism and dogs can be infected, as can most mammals. Different animals have different levels of susceptibility to anthrax infection. Herbivores (animals that eat plants, such as cattle, sheep, and horses) are the most susceptible to anthrax.

  • Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections are bacterial infections that are minimally or no longer responsive to commonly used antibiotics. In other words, these bacteria are resistant to antibiotics and they cannot be killed and their growth cannot be stopped.

  • Antibodies are specialized proteins, also called immunoglobulins that are primarily found in the bloodstream. They are produced by specialized white blood cells called plasma cells, a form of lymphocyte.

  • An antioxidant is any compound, whether vitamin, mineral, nutraceutical, or herb that protects against cellular damage from reactive oxygen species, including free radicals, single oxygen atoms and hydrogen peroxide. Some of the more well-known antioxidants include ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E), beta-carotene, and enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase.

  • Anxiety wraps are vest-like garments designed to calm anxious dogs. The vests work under the theory that pressure applied to the dog’s torso causes a calming effect similar to swaddling a crying infant or hugging a distressed person.

  • The word “stenosis” means “narrowing,” and aortic stenosis describes a narrowing along the aorta as it leads out of the heart.