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  • One of the most common injuries to the knee of dogs is tearing of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). This ligament is similar to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in humans. There are actually two cruciate ligaments inside the knee: the cranial cruciate ligament and caudal cruciate ligament. They are called “cruciate” because they “cross” over each other inside the middle of the knee.

  • Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the application of extreme cold to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue. The term comes from the Greek "cryo" meaning icy cold and the word surgery meaning literally "hand work". Cryosurgery is used to treat a number of diseases and disorders, especially skin conditions.

  • Treatment with this drug involves an initiating phase and a maintenance phase. The initiating phase arrests the disease and restores the dog to a more normal state. Some of the clinical signs, especially increased food and water intake, should stop within the first 1-3 weeks.

  • Dogs, like people, can develop a variety of bladder and kidney stones. Bladder stones (uroliths or cystic calculi), are rock-like formations of minerals that form in the urinary bladder, and are more common than kidney stones in dogs. A somewhat rare form of urolith in the dog is composed of cystine crystals.

  • Diskospondylitis involves infection and inflammation of the disks between the vertebrae in the spine. The most common first clinical signs are difficulty getting up from a down position, reluctance to jump, and an abnormal, unstable gait, including lameness.

  • Eclampsia (hypocalcemia or puerperal tetany) is an emergency medical condition associated with a life-threatening drop in blood calcium levels that occurs in nursing mothers. Eclampsia occurs most commonly when the kittens are one to five weeks of age and the mother is producing the most milk.

  • Following certain traumas, after some surgeries, or in the case of a self-mutilating bird or feather picking bird, various protective devices or collars (often called Elizabethan collars) may have to be employed to prevent a bird from further harming or traumatizing itself.

  • An Elizabethan collar (also known as an E-collar or a buster collar) is a plastic hood or cone that helps protect injuries or wounds from further damage. These collars prevent the cat from licking or chewing at an injury on its body, or from scratching or pawing at its face or head.

  • Feline eosinophilic keratitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the cornea. In cats with eosinophilic keratitis, eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) invade the cornea, giving the surface of the eye a pink, white, and/or chalky appearance.

  • Many liquid potpourri products and essential oils, including oil of cinnamon, citrus, pennyroyal, peppermint, pine, sweet birch, tea tree (melaleuca), wintergreen, and ylang ylang, are poisonous to cats. Both ingestion and skin exposure can be toxic.