Saint Bernard

Your Saint Bernard

Caring for Your Faithful Companion

Saint Bernards: What a Unique Breed!

Your dog is special! She’s your best friend, companion, and a source of unconditional love. Chances are that you chose her because you like Saint Bernards and you expected her to have certain traits that would fit your lifestyle:

  • Affectionate, easygoing, and lovable
  • Good with children and other pets
  • Eager to please and responsive to training
  • Brave and ready for adventure
  • Devoted, loyal, and protective
  • Intelligent, friendly, and easily won over

However, no dog is perfect! You may have also noticed these characteristics:

  • Needs daily exercise
  • Passes a lot of gas, sheds, and drools
  • Can be rambunctious and rowdy, especially as a younger dog
  • Doesn’t do well in the heat
  • Prone to boredom and separation anxiety when left alone and will find trouble
  • Takes up a lot of room due to her massive size

Is it all worth it? Of course! She’s full of personality, and you love her for it! She is a social and benevolent companion, content to snuggle. With sufficient exercise, early socialization and training, she makes an excellent family pet.

The Saint Bernard originated in the Swiss and Italian Alps. They were originally employed by the Monks at the St. Bernard Pass to rescue travelers trapped in avalanches. The Saint Bernard can have a long or short coat that is very dense and designed to protect them from cold temperatures. The Saint Bernard is naturally friendly and welcoming, with a kind spirit. They are known to be very patient and tolerant of children. They are a giant breed that is slow moving but will swiftly defend family members if they are threatened. Saint Bernards thrive on affection from their family but are not overly demanding of attention. The Saint Bernard is a generally healthy breed with an average lifespan of 8-9 years.

Your Saint Bernard’s Health

We know that because you care so much about your dog, you want to take good care of her. That is why we have summarized the health concerns we will be discussing with you over the life of your St. Bernard. By knowing about health concerns specific to Saint Bernards, we can tailor a preventive health plan to watch for and hopefully prevent some predictable risks.

Many diseases and health conditions are genetic, meaning they are related to your pet’s breed. There is a general consensus among canine genetic researchers and veterinary practitioners that the conditions we’ve described herein have a significant rate of incidence and/or impact in this breed.That does not mean your dog will have these problems; it just means that she is more at risk than other dogs. We will describe the most common issues seen inSaint Bernardsto give you an idea of what may come up in her future. Of course, we can’t cover every possibility here, so always check with us if you notice any unusual signs or symptoms.

This guide contains general health information important to all canines as well as the most important genetic predispositions for Saint Bernards. This information helps you and us together plan for your pet’s unique medical needs. At the end of the booklet, we have also included a description of what you can do at home to keep your Saint looking and feeling her best. You will know what to watch for, and we will all feel better knowing that we’re taking the best possible care of your pal.

General Health Information for your Saint Bernard

Brushing your dog’s teeth daily will prevent periodontal disease.

Brushing your dog’s teeth daily will prevent periodontal disease.

Dental Disease

Dental disease is the most common chronic problem in pets, affecting 80% of all dogs by age two. And unfortunately, your Saint Bernard is more likely than other dogs to have problems with her teeth. It starts with tartar build-up on the teeth and progresses to infection of the gums and roots of the teeth. If we don’t prevent or treat dental disease, your buddy will lose her teeth and be in danger of damaging her kidneys, liver, heart, and joints. In fact, your Saint Bernard’s life span may be cut short by one to three years! We’ll clean your dog’s teeth regularly and let you know what you can do at home to keep those pearly whites clean.


Saint Bernards are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections—the same ones that all dogs can get—such as parvo, rabies, and distemper. Many of these infections are preventable through vaccination, which we will recommend based on the diseases we see in our area, herage, and other factors.


Obesity can be a significant health problem in Saint Bernards. It is a serious disease that may causeor worsen joint problems, metabolic and digestive disorders, back pain and heart disease. Though it’s tempting to give your pal food when she looks at you with those soulful eyes, you can “love her to death” with leftover people food and doggie treats. Instead, give her a hug, brush her fur or teeth, play a game with her, or perhaps take her for a walk. She’ll feel better, and so will you!

Roundworm egg as seen under the microscope.

Roundworm egg as seen under the microscope.


All kinds of worms and bugs can invade your Saint’s body, inside and out. Everything from fleas and ticks to ear mites can infest herskin and ears. Hookworms, roundworms, heartworms, and whipworms can get into hersystem in a number of ways: drinking unclean water, walking on contaminated soil, or being bitten by an infected mosquito. Some of these parasites can be transmitted to you or a family member and are a serious concern for everyone. For your canine friend, these parasites can cause pain, discomfort, and even death, so it’s important that we test for them on a regular basis. We’ll also recommend preventive medication as necessary to keep her healthy.

Spay or Neuter

One of the best things you can do for your St. Bernard is to have her spayed (neutered for males). In females, this means we surgically remove the ovaries and usually the uterus, and in males, it means we surgically remove the testicles. Spaying or neutering decreases the likelihood of certain types of cancers and eliminates the possibility of your pet becoming pregnant or fathering unwanted puppies. Performing this surgery also gives us a chance, while your pet is under anesthesia, to identify and address some of the diseases your dog is likely to develop. For example, if your pet needs hip X-rays or a puppy tooth extracted, this would be a good time. This is convenient for you and easy for your friend. Routine blood testing prior to surgery also helps us to identify and take precautions for common problems that increase anesthetic or surgical risk. Don’t worry; we’ll discuss the specific problems we will be looking for when the time arrives.

Genetic Predispositions for Saint Bernards

Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus

Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus


Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus, also known as GDV or Bloat, usually occurs in dogs with deep, narrow chests. This means your St. Bernard is more at risk than other breeds. When a dog bloats, the stomach twists on itself and fills with gas. The twisting cuts off blood supply to the stomach, and sometimes the spleen. Left untreated, the disease is quickly fatal, sometimes in as little as 30 minutes. Your dog may retch or heave (but little or nothing comes out), act restless, have an enlarged abdomen, or lie in a prayer position (front feet down, rear end up). Preventive surgery in which the stomach is tacked down or sutured in place so that it is unlikely to twist is an option. If you see symptoms, take your pet to an emergency hospital immediately!

Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Notice how the thin, weak heart muscle makes pumping blood ineffective.

Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Notice how the thin, weak heart muscle makes pumping blood ineffective.

Heart Disease

Saint Bernards are especially prone to a life-threatening heart condition known as dilated cardiomyopathy, or DCM, in which the heart becomes so large, thin, and weak that it can no longer effectively pump blood to the body. As this problem advances, he may act weak or tired, faint or collapse, breathe in a labored way, or cough. We’ll conduct a yearly electrical heart screening(ECG) and/or an echocardiogram starting at age one to look for abnormal heart rhythms early. If found, we’ll treat this condition with medication and may also recommend dietary supplementation.

Eye Problems

Not many things have as dramatic an impact on your dog’s quality of life as the proper functioning of his eyes. Unfortunately, Saint Bernards can inherit or develop a number of different eye conditions, some of which may cause blindness if not treated right away, and most of which can be extremely painful! We will evaluate his eyes at every examination to look for any signs of concern.

Cataracts are a common cause of blindness in older St. Bernards. We’ll watch for the lenses of his eyes to become more opaque—meaning they look cloudy instead of clear—when we examine him. Many dogs adjust well to losing their vision and get along just fine. Surgery to remove cataracts and restore sight may also be an option.

Entropion. Notice how the lower lid curls in towards the surface of the eye to cause irritation.

Entropion. Notice how the lower lid curls in towards the surface of the eye to cause irritation.

Entropion is a condition where the eyelid rolls inward, causing the eyelashes to rub against the cornea (surface of the eyeball). This is an extremely irritating and painful condition that can ultimately lead to blindness. It can happen in any dog breed; however, your St. Bernard is especially at risk for this heritable disorder. Surgical correction is usually successful if performed early.

Distichiasis is a condition caused by extra hairs that grow inside of the eyelid and rub on the surface of the eye. This is one of the most commonly inherited diseases in dogs, and your St. Bernard is more likely than other dogs to develop this painful condition. If untreated, these abnormal hairs can cause corneal ulcers and chronic eye pain. Several treatment options are available, and the prognosis is good once the hairs have been permanently removed.

Bone weakened by osteosarcoma (bone cancer) has caused a fracture.

Bone weakened by osteosarcoma (bone cancer) has caused a fracture.

Bone Cancer

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor in dogs. It typically afflicts middle-aged large and giant breeds like your St. Bernard. Early symptoms include lameness and leg pain. Early detection is critical! Call right away if you notice that your dog is limping. This is a painful and aggressive tumor, and the sooner it is removed, the better his prognosis.

Bleeding Disorders

There are several types of inherited bleeding disorders which occur in dogs. They range in severity from very mild to very severe. Many times a pet seems normal until a serious injury occurs or surgery is performed, and then severe bleeding can result. Von Willebrand’s disease is a blood clotting disorder frequently found in Saint Bernards. We’ll conduct diagnostic testing for blood clotting time or a specific DNA blood test for Von Willebrand’s disease or other similar disorders to check for this problem before we perform surgery.

Bone and Joint Problems

A number of different musculoskeletal problems have been reported in Saint Bernards. While it may seem overwhelming, each condition can be diagnosed and treated to prevent undue pain and suffering. With diligent observation at home and knowledge about the diseases that may affect your friend’s bones, joints, or muscles you will be able to take great care of him throughout his life.

Osteochondritis dissecans of the shoulder joint. Note the loss of cartilage on the ball portion of the joint.

Osteochondritis dissecans of the shoulder joint. Note the loss of cartilage on the ball portion of the joint.

When St. Bernard puppies are allowed to grow too quickly, the cartilage in their joints may not attach to the bone properly. This problem is known as osteochondritis dissecans or OCD . If this occurs, surgery may be required to fix the problem. It’s best to stick to our recommended growth rate of no more than four pounds per week. Don’t overfeed him and don’t supplement with additional calcium. Feed a large-breed puppy diet rather than an adult or a regular puppy diet. Weigh your puppy every three to four weeks.

Both hips and elbows are at risk for dysplasia, an inherited disease that causes the joints to develop improperly and results in arthritis. Stiffness in your St. Bernard’s elbows or hips may become a problem for him, especially as he matures. You may notice that he begins to show lameness in his legs or has difficulty getting up from lying down. We can treat the arthritis—the sooner the better—to minimize discomfort and pain. We’ll take X-rays of your dog’s bones to identify issues as early as possible. Surgery is sometimes a good option in severe and life-limiting cases. Keep in mind that overweight dogs may develop arthritis years earlier than those of normal weight, causing undue pain and suffering!

The cranial cruciate ligament is one of the four tough bands of tissue that hold each knee together. A torn cranial cruciate ligament is a common injury in active dogs, which includes your Saint. Usually surgical correction is done to stabilize the knee and help prevent crippling arthritis. Physical therapy and multimodal pain management are necessary to get the best outcome. Keeping him at the right weight, feeding a high-quality diet, and avoiding too much twisting of the knees (like playing Frisbee) are key in avoiding this painful injury.

Growing St. Bernards can suffer from a painful inflammation of the long bones in the legs, a condition called eosinophilic panosteitis, pano or eo-pan. It usually starts at around six to ten months of age and shifts from leg to leg. We’ll look for this condition upon examination; if your pal exhibits pain when the area is squeezed or palpated, we’ll take X-rays to diagnose the problem. Panosteitis usually causes no permanent damage, but requires pain medication. If your dog has the condition and has developed an abnormal gait to compensate for the sore leg(s), rehabilitation exercises may be required.


There are three types of seizures in dogs: reactive, secondary, and primary. Reactive seizures are caused by the brain’s reaction to a metabolic problem like low blood sugar, organ failure, or a toxin. Secondary seizures are the result of a brain tumor, stroke, or trauma. If no other cause can be found, the disease is called primary, or idiopathic epilepsy. This problem is often an inherited condition, with Saint Bernards commonly afflicted. If your friend is prone to seizures, they will usually begin between six months and three years of age. An initial diagnostic workup may help find the cause. Lifelong medication is usually necessary to help keep seizures under control, with periodic blood testing required to monitor side effects and effectiveness. If your dog has a seizure: Carefully prevent him from injuring himself, but don’t try to control his mouth or tongue. It won’t help him, and he may bite you accidentally! Note the length of the seizure, and call us or an emergency hospital.

Skin Conditions

Because he has long, dense fur, your Saint requires a lot of brushing and coat care. Mats and tangles can lead to skin infections, particularly moist, painful skin lesions called hot spots. Brush your pet at least weekly and keep an eye out for sores, especially in hot, humid weather. Plan on taking him to the groomer often to maintain a healthy coat.

Some dogs tend to form calluses as a result of lying on hard surfaces. Large breeds like your Saint Bernard tend to form them on their elbows and hocks (ankles). Calluses normally provide protection at pressure points, but when they become infected the dog is said to have callus pyoderma. Pyoderma means skin infection. If you notice that a callus has reddened areas, bumps, blackheads, holes, or discharge it is probably infected. Because problems are worse in heavier dogs, keeping your dog at a trim weight is helpful. Make sure he has access to soft bedding, and encourage him to use it. Carpet fibers may actually be somewhat abrasive, so blankets or padding are preferred over carpet. Special pads held on by straps over the shoulders can take pressure off calluses or infected areas.

St. Bernards are prone to a variety of skin problems, including one called sebaceous adenitis. You may notice that your dog has dry, scaly skin with patches of hair loss along the top of his head, back of the neck, and back (typically you’ll first notice it when your dog is between one and five years of age). Treatment is generally long term, and we’ll likely try a combination of approaches to determine what is most effective with your dog. The response to treatment is highly variable, but you’ll almost always need to give fatty acid supplements and use special shampoos to remove dead skin and hair. The earlier the skin is checked out, the better his results.

The thyroid glands rest on both sides of the neck alongside the windpipe.

The thyroid glands rest on both sides of the neck alongside the windpipe.

Calcium Imbalance

The skeleton (all bones in the body) contains approximately 98% of total amount of calcium in the entire body. The remaining 2% circulates throughout the body. Calcium is regulated in part by Parathyroid Hormone (PTH). Primary hypoparathyroidism is a condition seen more commonly in St. Bernards where not enough of this hormone is produced, leading to low calcium and high phosphorus levels in the bloodstream. Symptoms include anorexia, behavioral changes, muscle tremors, seizures, panting, and cataract development. Treatment with medications and dietary supplements has shown some success.

Overheating Disorder: Malignant Hyperthermia

Malignant means deadly or dangerous and hyperthermia refers to overheating. Some St. Bernards seem to have a defective “internal thermostat” and can develop dangerously high body temperatures leading to heat stroke, muscle rigidity, and organ damage. This is especially common during and after anesthesia, thus we will monitor his temperature closely to prevent complications following surgical or dental procedures. DNA testing is available and carriers should be screened and identified before breeding.

Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s)

Addison’s Disease is an endocrine system disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands fail to produce enough hormones to keep the body functioning normally. Left untreated, hypoadrenocorticism can be fatal, and symptoms often mimic many other diseases. Fortunately, we can run a specialized timed blood test to check for this condition. Though any dog can acquire this disease, St. Bernards seem to get it more frequently. We’ll be watching for clinical signs at every exam, and will periodically check his electrolyte levels to screen for this problem.

SaintBernard2of2Taking Care of Your Saint Bernard at Home

Much of what you can do to keep your dog happy and healthy is common sense, just like it is for people. Watch her diet, make sure she gets plenty of exercise, regularly brush her teeth and coat, and call us or a pet emergency hospital when something seems unusual (see “What to Watch For” below). Be sure to adhere to the schedule of examinations and vaccinations that we recommend for her. This is when we’ll give her the necessary “check-ups” and test for diseases and conditions that are common in St. Bernards. Another very important step in caring for your pet is signing up for pet health insurance. There will certainly be medical tests and procedures she will need throughout her life and pet health insurance will help you cover those costs.

Routine Care, Diet, and Exercise

Build her routine care into your schedule to help your Saint live longer, stay healthier, and be happier during her lifetime. We cannot overemphasize the importance of a proper diet and exercise routine.

  • Supervise your pet as you would a toddler. Keep doors closed, pick up after yourself, and block off rooms as necessary. This will keep her out of trouble and away from objects she shouldn’t put in her mouth.
  • Brush her coat as needed, at least weekly.
  • Saint Bernards generally have good teeth, and you can keep them perfect by brushing them at least twice a week!
  • Clean her ears weekly, even as a puppy. Don’t worry—we’ll show you how!
  • She can be sensitive to warm temperatures; avoid any prolonged exposure and be very alert to the signs of heat stress.
  • As an adult she has a tendency to be lazy so you must ensure she receives adequate exercise by providing daily walks and ample room to play.
  • Keep your dog’s diet consistent and don’t give her people food.
  • Feed a high-quality diet appropriate for her age.
  • Exercise your dog regularly, but don’t overdo it at first.

What to Watch For

Any abnormal symptom could be a sign of serious disease, or it could just be a minor or temporary problem. The important thing is to be able to tell when to seek veterinary help, and how urgently. Many diseases cause dogs to have a characteristic combination of symptoms, which together can be a clear signal that your Saint Bernard needs help.

Office calls

Give us a call for an appointment if you notice any of these types of signs:

  • Change in appetite or water consumption
  • Tartar build-up, bad breath, red gums, or broken teeth
  • Itchy skin (scratching, chewing, or licking), hair loss
  • Lethargy, mental dullness, or excessive sleeping
  • Fearfulness, aggression, or other behavioral changes


Seek medical care immediately if you notice any of these types of signs:

  • Scratching or shaking the head, tender ears, or ear discharge
  • Inability or straining to urinate; discolored urine
  • Cloudiness, redness, itching, or any other abnormality involving the eyes
  • Dry heaving or a large, tight, painful abdomen
  • Fainting, collapse, breathing issues, cough
  • General reluctance to run or play
  • Leg stiffness, reluctance to rise, sit, use stairs, jump, or “bunny hopping”
  • Any abnormal shaking, trembling, or excessive involuntary tremors
  • Matted fur, hairloss, sores
  • General listlessness, droopy facial expression, vomiting, diarrhea

Partners in Health Care

DNA testing is a rapidly advancing field with new tests constantly emerging to help in the diagnosis of inherited diseases before they can become a problem for your friend. For the most up-to-date information on DNA and other screening tests available for your pal, visit

Your St. Bernard counts on you to take good care of her, and we look forward to working with you to ensure that she lives a long and healthy life. Our goal is to provide the best health care possible: health care that’s based on her breed, lifestyle, and age. Please contact us when you have questions or concerns.


  • Ackerman L. The Genetic Connection: A Guide to Health Problems in Purebred Dogs. Second edition. AAHA Press; 2011.
  • Bell JS, Cavanagh KE, Tilley LP, Smith FW. Veterinary medical guide to dog and cat breeds. Jackson, Wyoming. Teton New Media; 2012.
  • Gough A, Thomas A. Breed Predispositions to Disease in Dogs and Cats. 2nd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
  • Crook A, Dawson S, Cote E, MacDonald S, Berry J. Canine Inherited Disorders Database [Internet]. University of Prince Edward Island. 2011. [cited 2013 Apr 11]. Available from:
  • Breed Specific Health Concerns [Internet]. American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation, Inc. [cited 2013 Apr 11]. Available from:

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Health and Wellness

Hip dysplasia.
Elbow dysplasia.
Gastric dilatation and volvulus syndrome (GDV, also commonly called bloat).
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD).
Metabolic bone disease.
Congenital deafness.
Fold pyoderma.
Idiopathic epilepsy.
Fibrocartilagenous emboli.
Osteosarcoma (appendicular).

What You Should Know

Famous as Nana in the Peter Pan story and movie
Famous also for drooling.
Although the rough-coated Saint Bernard is most commonly seen, the monks preferred the smooth variety for working purposes.
The heavier-coated dogs got iced up in the snow (snow compacted and formed little, hard iceballs that clung to the dog’s coat and weighed it down).
The Saint Bernard holds two records in the Guinness Book. Duke is the heaviest recorded member of the canine species—he weighed in at 295 pounds. Thor holds the record for weight pulling. In 1974, this 177-pound dog dragged 6,000 pounds of lead for the title.