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  • Bilberry is an herb whose fruit has been used in human herbal medicine for centuries. Bilberry, related to blueberry, has antioxidant properties, and is most commonly taken internally in people to help with disorders of the eyes including macular degeneration (deterioration of part of the retina or back of the eye) and cataract formation.

  • The bile acid test is a very useful test that helps to determine if the liver is working properly.

  • There are receptors coating the surface of every cell with a nucleus that help to facilitate communication between cells. Biological response modifiers are large sugar molecules (immune polysaccharides), or sugar and protein molecules (glycoproteins) that interact with receptors on the surface of immune system cells.

  • When birds are ill, they will commonly develop a change in their droppings. While not usually specific for any one particular disease, a change in the color, frequency, volume, or character of droppings may indicate a problem that requires immediate veterinary attention.

  • There are two methods to prevent estrus, or "heat," in a female dog: surgery and medical management using hormonal drugs.

  • Bismuth compounds are used to treat diarrhea. They may also be used to relieve the symptoms of an upset stomach and nausea.

  • One of the most common reasons dogs see their veterinarians for emergency appointments is because of a bite wound. The bite wound may have been caused by another family dog or by a fight with a strange or unfamiliar animal.

  • A bird may bite out of fear or aggression. They may be protecting their territory or asserting their dominance. Screaming or loud vocalization is a natural way for wild parrots and other birds to communicate with each other in their flock environments. They will also scream if they are alarmed.

  • Tea is second only to water as the most popular beverage in the world. Both black and green teas are made from the tea plant, Camellia sinensis.

  • Bladder stones (uroliths or cystic calculi) are rock-like formations of minerals that develop in the urinary bladder. There may be a large, single stone or a collection of stones that range in size from sand-like grains to gravel.