Articles

Infectious Diseases

  • Feline calicivirus is a virus that is an important cause of upper respiratory infections and oral disease in cats. The typical clinical signs of an upper respiratory infection involve the nose and throat such as sneezing, nasal congestion, conjunctivitis, and discharge from the nose or eyes. Cats with a calicivirus infection often develop ulcers on the tongue, hard palate, gums, lips, or nose. Calicivirus is highly contagious and infected cats can shed the virus in saliva or secretions from the nose or eyes. The standard core vaccines that are given to cats include immunization against calicivirus and will help reduce the severity of disease and shorten the length of the illness if your cat is exposed.

  • Feline Hemotrophic Mycoplasmosis (FHM) is the current name for a relatively uncommon infection of cats. With this disease, the cat's red blood cells are infected by a microscopic blood parasite. The subsequent destruction of the infected red blood cells results in anemia. Anemia is a medical term referring to a reduction in the numbers of red blood cells (erythrocytes) or in the quantity of the blood pigment hemoglobin, which carries oxygen.

  • Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a virus specific to the cat family. It was first recognized in the mid 1980's and it has been found in cats worldwide. Although widespread, it is not a common infection in cats. Only 1-5% of cats show evidence of exposure to the virus. In some cats exposure to the virus leads to clinical signs and symptoms that result in deficiency in the immune system.

  • FIP is associated with a viral infection called feline coronavirus. There are many different strains of feline coronavirus, which differ in their ability to cause disease. Feline enteric coronavirus strains can mutate to the more harmful type of virus and cause FIP disease. Many of the clinical signs of FIP are vague and occur with other diseases found in cats. Most cats will develop the wet or effusive form of FIP, which refers to the accumulation of fluid in body cavities; fluid may accumulate in the abdomen. Unfortunately there are no laboratory tests available that can distinguish between the enteric coronavirus and the FIP-causing strains.

  • Feline leukemia virus is a virus that infects cats and can cause a variety of diseases in addition to leukemia. It suppresses the immune system and makes cats susceptible to infections and disease, including causing cancers. It is transmitted between cats through the exchange of bodily fluids, although usually an extended period of contact is necessary. It is easy to diagnose, but there is no cure for it. There is a vaccine available that is recommended based on a cat's lifestyle and risk factors.

  • The term panleukopenia means a decrease in the number of all of the white blood cells in the body. Feline panleukopenia virus is present in all excretions, particularly the feces, of infected cats. Cats typically experience depression or listlessness which may progress to collapse. Vomiting and diarrhea are frequent and the diarrhea may contain blood. Dehydration and secondary infections can easily occur. Antibiotics are ineffective against viruses, but are helpful in controlling the secondary bacterial infections that commonly occur. Vaccination is important to protect cats from this destructive virus.

  • Giardiasis is an intestinal infection in humans and animals, caused by a microscopic protozoan parasite. The parasite occurs worldwide and is a common cause of "Traveler's Diarrhea" in people. Outdoor enthusiasts who inadvertently consume contaminated water may develop "beaver fever", which is another name for giardiasis in people.

  • Heartworms are a blood-borne parasite called Dirofilaria immitis that reside in the heart or adjacent large blood vessels of infected animals. Recent studies of cats with heart and respiratory diseases have found an incidence of heartworms that is far greater than previously thought. Veterinarians now strongly recommend that all cats receive year-round monthly heartworm preventives in areas where mosquitoes are active all year round.

  • Heartworm disease is a serious and potentially fatal disease. It is caused by a blood-borne parasite known as Dirofilaria immitis. Adult heartworms may live up to five years and, during this time, the female produces millions of offspring called microfilaria. You can prevent your dog from getting heartworms by using a heartworm preventive.

  • Hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by a protozoan (a small, microscopic organism) known as Hepatozoon. There are two species that cause hepatozoonosis, Hepatozoon canis and H. americanum, and there are differences in the course of disease and treatment depending on which species is the cause of the disease. Both species are spread by ticks; the most effective method to prevent hepatozoonosis is the regular use of an effective tick prevention.