Articles

Tumors

  • Squamous cell carcinoma in situ is a disordered growth of the skin epidermis that may extend to include epithelium of the upper part of the hair follicles.

  • The phrase 'multidrug resistance mutation 1 (MDR1)' refers to a specific mutation that can occur at a gene known as the MDR1 gene, also known as the ABCB1 gene. Many herding breeds (most commonly Collies and Australian Shepherds) have a mutation at the MDR1 gene that makes them more sensitive to the negative effects of certain medications.

  • In some cases, chronic inflammation of the nose (rhinitis) leads to proliferation (hyperplasia) and formation of polyps in the nose or throat. These polyps are not cancerous but may need removal.

  • Neuroendocrine cells produce specialized chemical substances called neuroendocrine hormones. These hormones affect the rates of specific chemical reactions in nearby cells or in other tissues throughout the body.

  • Oral papillomas (warts) are benign tumors of the epithelial lining of the mouth and throat caused by papillomaviruses. The esophagus may also be affected in severe cases.

  • Squamous cell carcinomas are malignant cancers originating from the lining cells of the mouth. They are locally invasive and often recurrent.

  • Like us, dogs can develop oral masses. Some will grow slowly and won't spread to other locations (benign), while others will spread to different areas of the body causing great harm (malignant).

  • Osteosarcomas are somewhat rare in cats and progress slowly. Osteosarcoma is very painful. The most common location where osteosarcomas develop in cats is the hindlimb. Amputation is by far the most common treatment. Chemotherapy is not generally pursued without evidence of metastasis, given the relatively long-term control with surgery alone.

  • Osteosarcoma, or bone cancer, is common in large breed dogs and is very aggressive, with upwards of 90-95% of patients having micrometastasis. Osteosarcoma is very painful. Lameness or a distinct swelling may be noted. Amputation is by far the most common treatment with chemotherapy following surgery. Radiation therapy may also be an option.

  • The ovary contains several different cell types. These include the germ cells, which make the eggs, the supporting (stromal) and hormone-producing cells as well as epithelium, connective tissue and blood vessels.